Monday, October 01, 2018

Ancient Iranian-Jewish Joint Military Campaign

From The History of  Heraclius describing the Persian military campaign against the Byzantine emperor of the day that led to the conquest of Jerusalem in 614:

Heraclius...[t]ogether with his brother Theodosius, he assumed the military command, assembled a multitude of troops...The Iranians grew stronger, went and took the city of Tarsus and all the inhabitants in the district of Cilicia. Then the entire country of Palestine willingly submitted to the king of kings. The remnants of the Hebrew people especially rebelled from the Christians and taking in hand their native zeal [The translation is uncertain: ew arheal i dzerhn znaxandz hayreni, perhaps "manifesting desire for a/their homeland"] wrought very damaging slaughters among the multitude of believers. Going [to the Iranians], [the Jews] united with them. At that time, the army of the king of Iran was stationed at Caesarea in Palestine. Their general was named Rhazmiozan (that is, Xorheam). He spoke with [the inhabitants of] Jerusalem so that they submit voluntarily and be kept in peace and prosperity.

Now first [the Jerusalemites] voluntarily submitted, offering the general and the princes very great gifts, and requesting that loyal ostikans be stationed with them to preserve the city. However, several months later the entire mob of the city's young braves united [miabaneal amenayn rhamik kacharhats 'n " mankunk' k'aghak'in...] and killed the Iranian king's ostikans. Then they rebelled from his service. After this a battle took place among the inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem, Jew and Christian. The multitude of the Christians grew stronger, struck at and killed many of the Jews [The pejorative satakets'in is used]. The remainder of the Jews jumped from the walls, and went to the Iranian army.

Then Xorheam (who is Erhamikozan) assembled his troops and went and encamped around Jerusalem and invested it, warring against it for 19 days. Digging beneath the foundations of the city, they destroyed the wall. On the 19th day [of the siege] which was the 27th day of the month of Marg [The 11th month of the Armenian calendar, corresponding to June] in the 25th year of the reign of Xosrov Apruez [615], ten days after Easter, the Iranian forces took Jerusalem and putting their words to work for three days they destroyed [almost] all the people in the city.

Stationing themselves inside the city, they burned the place down. The troops were then ordered to count the corpses. The figure reached 57,000. Thirty-five thousand people were taken alive, among whom was a certain patriarch named Zak'aria who was also custodian of the Cross. [The Iranians] sought for the life-bringing Cross and began to torment [the clerics], executing many clerics at that time. Finally [the clerics] pointed out the place where it was hidden. [The Iranians] took it into captivity and also melted all the city's silver and gold, which they took to the court of the king. Now regarding those who had been arrested, an order was issued by the king to have mercy on them, to build a city and to settle them there, establishing each person in his [former] rank/profession [karg]. He commanded that the Jews be driven from the city, and the king's order was quickly implemented, with great urgency...

The site of the slaughter is Sultan Pool. There is another ancient source.

Consider this.

And this:

Judaism still attracted Christians to its rites in Antioch. In consequence, the first synod in Antioch (341) declared in its first canon that Easter should not be celebrated at the same time as the Jewish Passover (Mansi, "Synopsis," i. 51). The attachment of the Christian to Jewish customs may be particularly inferred from six sermons, delivered against the Jews in Antioch (about 366-387) by John Chrysostom, later patriarch of Constantinople. On Sabbaths and holidays, Christians, especially women, visited the synagogue in preference to the church. They also preferred to bring their disputes to Jewish judges and took their oaths in the synagogue.

The Jews felt so secure in their position that, in Inmestar, a small town situated between Chalcis and Antioch, they scoffed at Jesus and the Christians, but were severely punished (Socrates, "Historia Ecclesiastica," vii. 16; compare "Codex Theodosianus," xvi. 8, 18). The Antiochians revenged the wrong of Inmestar by depriving the Jews of their synagogue (423). The emperor Theodosius II. restored the synagogue to them; but on the protestations of the fanatical monk Simeon Stylites, he ceased to defend the cause of the Jews (Evagrius, "Hist. Eccl." i. 13). During the reign of the emperor Zeno, in brawls between the factions of the blue and the green, many Jews were murdered by the greens (Malalas, "Chron. Pasch." Bonn, p. 389). When Persia threatened the Eastern Empire, the emperor Phocas vainly endeavored to force the Jews to be baptized, and those of Antioch were driven to rebellion, in the course of which many Christians were killed and the patriarch Anastasius was condemned to a shameful death (610)

And this, the expulsion of Jews from Antioch in 592.


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